(www.MaritimeCyprus.com) Recently there were raised concerns about increasing attacks against vessels from missiles, crafts carrying Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and hand-held Anti-Tank Guided Weapons (ATGWs). Due to regional conflict, new threats emerged in October 2016. Analysis of recent incidents has shown that the stern of the hull is a likely target area, especially on tankers.
This information paper has been developed to highlight the results of the study in relation to the protection of crew and vessels. The results can be applied to both existing and new build vessels OCIMF collaborated with QinetiQ, a multinational defence company, to conduct a computer-based simulation study. The simulations were created by QinetiQ’s Survive tool to investigate the vulnerability of a laden Aframax-size tanker’s hull with the crew at a heightened state of readiness. This type of vessel was chosen for the study because its hull construction is a common tanker form.
The aim of the study was to determine, following attacks by Anti-Ship Missiles (ASMs), Water-Borne IEDs (WBIEDs) and ATGWs:
- The likelihood of injury to seafarers.
- The effect on crew evacuation routes.
- The scale of damage.
The study used computer-based simulation to assess the vulnerability of an Aframax-size tanker to a range of credible threats: a representative ASM, a WBIED and an anti-tank missile. The analysis considered personnel survival, the integrity of the hull and internal bulkheads and the vulnerability of critical systems. The results were evaluated quantitatively using focused modelling and qualitatively by naval architects and vulnerability design experts.
Summary of results
The study concluded the following:
- The WBIED modelled is capable of:
- Inflicting blast-related fatalities and injuries.
- Causing extensive damage to the hull and superstructure plates due to blast and shock,
resulting in flooding of the machinery spaces.
- Blast and shock damage to the propulsion and steering system and to the electrical power
- Damaging escape routes and lifesaving appliances due to blast.
- The effects of the ASM and ATGW modeled are localized in the impact area:
- No flooding is predicted.
- Damage to the vessel’s critical systems is unlikely.
- Escape routes and lifeboats/rafts may be susceptible to damage.
- Crew injuries are possible, and if a weapon hits an occupied space, such as the bridge,
multiple serious injuries and fatalities can occur.
When operating in areas where threats of ASMs, ATGWs and WBIEDs have been identified, this study highlights the following for consideration:
- Mustering the crew at a point other than the citadel (if in the engine room) and providing ballistic protection at this alternative point.
- Securing or removing potentially hazardous material and equipment from crew muster points.
- Providing the crew with additional or specialist firefighting equipment and training.
- Ensuring the crew are familiar with all escape routes.
- Providing body armour and ear defenders.
- Adding structural armouring to high-value exposed locations, such as the bridge.
- Providing additional protection to critical equipment and escape route doors against blast and shock damage against weapon effects.
- Enhancing firefighting and blast suppression systems.
For new build vessels, this study highlights:
- Duplicating critical systems as a consideration for future design, including the vessel’s main engine and electrical power generators. This is similar to the duplication of navigational tools and systems that is often already in place on vessels.
- Installing Side Protection Systems (SPSs) to limit hull damage from IED explosions. Future design is influenced by many factors, and this possibility is included as an innovative research and development idea for vessel designers to explore for feasibility and cost-risk assessment.
For more details, click on below image to view full OCIMF paper: